Rethinking Decarbonisation Incentives for Net Zero policy
Energy Systems Catapult aimed to encourage broader strategic debate about how the UK could improve carbon policy to stimulate innovation and clean growth through the Rethinking Decarbonisation Incentives (RDI) project.
The UK has clear, legally binding targets to reduce carbon emissions to Net Zero by 2050, but the current policies in place to encourage emissions reduction are complex and often changing. Current policies comprise of different taxes, subsidies, contracts and regulations, which has resulted in the reward for cutting carbon emissions to vary across different sectors of the economy and is generally much lower than it needs to be. This makes it very difficult to promote long-term investment and innovation.
The Government has published a Clean Growth Strategy, but unlike other jurisdictions (e.g. California and Canada) there is relatively little strategic debate or commitment regarding:
The of economic drivers for decarbonisation,
Creating an enduring framework for carbon reduction across the whole economy.
The RDI project began by summarising the current pattern of ‘effective carbon prices’ (i.e. the strength of incentive to cut carbon emissions) across different sectors of the UK economy. The analysis carried out with the support of Oxford Energy Associates, showed that the UK currently experiences wide variations in effective carbon prices between emitting activities and sectors.
From these learnings, five carbon policy reform options were developed offering possible ways for reducing the complexity of the current policy landscape, while aligning or setting new incentives for decarbonisation across all sectors.
Five Policy Reform Options – represented a combination of quantity and price mechanisms, applied upstream or downstream, and covered a broad range of entities and general policy approaches.
However, it was challenging to include all sectors within these options, in particular agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sectors, which have seldom been covered by policies to date.
Following consultation with key industry bodies, we commissioned Frontier Economics to provide analysis on the design of a carbon intensity standard – the preferred Policy Reform Option of the five. This is one of a number of policy options the Catapult is exploring to incentivise the decarbonisation of the UK economy.
Setting Standards for Carbon Intensity – explores whether setting standards on carbon intensity could place an obligation on energy companies to reduce the carbon content of the energy they supplied. Obligated parties could meet the standard either by reducing the emissions intensity of their activities, or by buying credits from parties who are supplying energy with a carbon intensity below the standard.
Finally, RDI delivered a final report that made the following set of recommendations:
Take opportunities to improve the current framework of policies by adjusting existing mechanisms to align incentives to reduce emissions across the economy.
Consolidate and streamline existing measurement, monitoring, and verification of all emissions and related incentives.
Take immediate steps to progress a carbon policy driver for residential heat, including detailed design of an enduring framework of carbon standards.
Develop a pathway towards a coherent set of interlocking sectoral instruments covering all emitting activities throughout the economy, with a linked market for greenhouse gas removals.
Integrate carbon reduction into the measurement of economic productivity, potentially through the Industrial Strategy Council.
Future Carbon Policy for Clean Growth – a final report with recommendations to policy-makers on how the UK can achieve a balanced economy-wide carbon policy framework to boost innovation and deliver clean growth, consistent with a net zero target in 2050.
The Rethinking Decarbonisation Incentives project has helped us to better understand the nature and scale of challenges to improve carbon policies.
This report cited RDI a number of times, including: our summary of the current pattern of economic signals in the UK for reducing emissions in different sectors; insight on policies and regulations that can be aligned to a carbon price level, without pricing carbon directly; evidence of UK policies with objectives that are broader than climate change mitigation yet still indirectly reflect a carbon price; and insight into how to price carbon to reach net-zero emissions in the UK.
Impact update: October 2019
Ofgem’s annual State of the Energy Market 2019 report, includes an assessment of competition in retail and wholesale energy markets, affordability and vulnerability, progress in decarbonisation, the security of our energy supplies, and how energy networks are performing.
The The Climate Change Committee’s (CCC) cited the RDI on Reducing UK emissions Progress Report to Parliament, stating: “many sectors of the UK economy not currently facing the full costs of emitting greenhouse gases., with a wide variation in effective carbon prices across emitting activities and sectors, but these prices are generally much lower than required.
“Setting or raising carbon prices for these sectors could help incentivise the actions and investments required, as well as raising revenue.”
Read the Report
Rethinking Decarbonisation Incentives Future Carbon Policy for Clean Growth: Future Carbon Policy for Clean Growth
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