The most comprehensive view to date on how storage and flexibility technologies can help the UK decarbonise at least cost

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Accelerating storage and flexibility for Net Zero

Energy Systems Catapult built the Storage and Flexibility Model (SFM) in response to the increasingly complex challenge of balancing supply and demand in the energy system.

SFM assesses the value of storage technologies and identifies system service requirements of future energy systems for long term strategic and short term operational uncertainties.

Storage technologies, such as hot water tanks and batteries, are predicted to become a more integral part of the future energy system. As demand for electricity rises, these technologies will help ensure networks can cope, and allow homes and businesses to avoid peak times when energy is more expensive.

Without a deeper understanding of how storage and flexibility technologies could help in balancing energy networks, we will at best end up with a system that costs more than it needs to and at worst one that fails to manage supply and demand.

To tackle this challenge and address a collective lack of knowledge about the extent of the role storage and flexibility could play in the future, SFM was designed to provide the clearest ever picture of how these technologies can accelerate the UK towards a Net Zero.


Capability to represent multiple vectors, network levels, geographic regions and timeframes; including sub-hourly system services.


New Insights

Discover new insights applicable to many use-cases, including: long-term capacity planning, assessing the value of specific storage technologies, and identifying the system service requirements of future energy systems.


Long term or short term

Ability to represent long term strategic and short term operational uncertainties.


Integrates with other models

Complements our Energy System Modelling Environment (ESME) which provides less detail relating to storage but more expeditiously explores the rest of the energy system.

Case Studies

Net Zero with only Renewable Energy and Storage

Good Energy commissioned Energy Systems Catapult to carry out whole system modelling scenarios – with the specific constraints of allowing no nuclear power or fossil fuel energy supply – to determine if Net Zero by 2050 was still possible.

We utilised our National Energy System Model ESME – which is a peer reviewed, least cost optimisation model – and crucially the Storage and Flexibility Model (SFM) which provided a greater level of detail into how the energy system might function under Good Energy’s chosen scenarios.

SFM platform produces highly granular dispatch information and explores the different roles and responsibilities of energy technologies and services in 2050, on an hour-by-hour basis.

Good Energy used the modelling results to compile a report supporting their efforts to increase renewable energy generation and storage in the coming decades.

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Offering independent whole energy system modelling and analysis to support industry in targeting effective innovation investment.

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